Hello everyone, the lesson below is on uniformly accelerated motion. This lesson discusses mainly the use of equations for uniformly accelerated motion in one dimension:
Hi everyone. Below is a discussion of the Sample Assessment Materials of June 2018 Syllabs revision for Edexcel International Advanced Level Examination. For a complete view of all questions and answers discussed below, check here:
We are going to discuss on four basic assumptions of accounting six basic accounting concepts and four modifying principles of accounting.
Accounting entity assumption; the assumption states that the business transactions are separate from the owner’s personal transactions. For example, Sam Alex and Ken runs a business on shares of 25, 35 and 40 percentage of profits and the business is on loss now. But, they are only liable to this loss for the percentage of shares they own.
Next assumption is money measurement assumption; states the record only those transactions which can be recorded in terms of money. For example, Daniel purchase a building for his business use, so he’ll record this event but he will not record that the building is in small town or in a big city.
Going concern assumption; as per this assumption, businesses will last forever and will not wind up in near future. For example, Sam assumes that his hotel business will run for years.
Accounting period assumption states that to divide up the complex ongoing activities of a business into periods of a year, quarter, month, week etc. For example, Alex closed books of accounts in a year.
Let’s now discuss about basic concepts. First concept is dual aspect concept. The concept states that every business transaction requires recordation in two different accounts. For example, Sam purchases furniture for his hotel, he paid cash to receive furniture.
Revenue realization concept states that revenue can only be recognized after it has been earned. For example, Daniel sell some chocolates to his friend Neil on credit, here goods have been delivered. So, Daniel records this in his book of accounts.
Historical cost concept states that the price of an asset on the statement of financial position is based on its nominal or original cost when acquired by the company. For example, Sam purchases had tail for 1 million dollars 5 years ago entered in books of accounts. In this, original cost will be shown same1 million dollars even after next 10 years in the books of accounts.
Matching concept states that write only relevant cost of the period, revenues are reported along with the expenses that bought them in same period. For example, Daniel purchase our building $30 000 that will be useful for 80 months. Here the company will match 30 thousand dollars of expense each month to its monthly income statement.
Materiality principle; this principle states that an accounting standard can be ignored if the net impact of doing so has such a small impact on the financial statements that a reader of the financial statements would not be misled. For example, Daniel spent ten dollars to buy a wastebasket that has a useful life of ten years. The materiality principle allows him to expense the entire ten dollars in the year it is acquired, instead of recording depreciation expense of $1.00 per year for 10 years.
Consistency principle; now this principle states that once you adopt an accounting principle or method continue to follow it consistently in future accounting periods. For example, Neal purchase machine and use written down value method of depreciation for this year. So, he must follow the same for next coming years.
Prudence principle states that do not overestimate the amount of revenues recognized or under estimate the amount of expenses. For example, Daniel thinks that Neal will not be able to pay his money back, then this is a loss for Daniel. So, he’ll record this in books of accounts. But, suppose Daniel think that he will earn twice the cost of the chocolates, when he’ll sell rests then he’ll not record this in his books as this profit is not yet earned.
A business is any activity which provides a good or service, formed by an individual or group of individuals working towards a common objective.
What is a business objective?
A business objective is a result that a company aims to achieve. It also includes the strategies that the company will use to get there.
A business objective usually includes a time frame and list the resources available.
A business objective is more specific and easier to measure than a goal.
All our basic tools that underlie our planning and strategic activities are our objectives. They serve as the basis for creating policy and measuring performance.
Making a profit
Reducing the workforce
Goals on the other hand are statements that business makes regarding 7its future and they represent aspirations and are less specific.
The CEO of a company may say we seek to become the largest maker of bicycles in the world. This is a goal as they do not explain how the company will achieve this. The exact steps a company plans to make, to reach his goals are its business objectives.
For example, the CEO might say we will increase bicycle sales by 2.5 percent each quarter of this year, we will open new branches and factories in Germany and France.
During the next 12 months, sometimes one business objective can clash with another. For example, growth and profit may clash when a company achieves greater sales in the short term by slashing prices. It reduces short-term profit. Long-term business objectives can affect short-term prospects.
If a company invests heavily in plant equipment or new products, its cash flow in the short term will suffer.
There are 7Ps in the international marketing mix, including product, price, place, promotion, people, process and physical evidence.
This is a bundle of things that generate satisfaction for the customer. Products have a life cycle and they are developed and launched. If they are successful, their sales will grow. Eventually the market will mature and it will decline when there are many other rival entrances.
Decisions about the product and how it fits into the market with the competition is the basic marketing decision. These decisions will be different at different stages in the product life cycle.
In this case two generic strategies can be used to set prices. They include
- premium pricing- where there is a premium product
- price competition- where there is no differentiation
In addition to the above, there are various price tactics. They include:
Penetration pricing– Where the companies set low prices to build market share
Price skimming-Where companies take a temporary competitive advantage to charge high prices
Optional pricing– Where additional benefits are priced separately
Captive pricing– This is for additional products or services, once a customer is captured
Price discrimination-This is when the same product has a different price in different market segments or locations.
Usually, the pricing choices are done based on the competitors’ prices and competitors’ likely reactions to price changes. Hence, pricing is a dynamic process in which companies struggle for a position in the market.
- This is the distribution channel that a company uses to get the product to the customers.
- In this case, it should be decided whether the product is supplied directly to customers or intermediaries are used.
- Types of intermediaries include
- Buy the product from the producers
- Break down the bulk into smaller quantities for retailers
- Store the goods
- Take on some of the marketing function
- Do not buy the product
- Find the customers and take orders in exchange for a commission
- Product is stored on behalf of the producer
- They do not own it while it is in storage
- They are commonly used in countries other than the one in which the manufacturer is based
- Sell many brands and may have a strong brand themselves
- Decide what price to charge, carry out advertising and promotion
- Provides credit to the customers
- Offers a direct to customer channel for producers, wholesalers and retailers
- Low set up costs
- An alternative to the use of agents
- Considering the distribution strategy, the choice and mix of channels should be decided.
- Choice of single or multiple channels of distribution
- Choice of changing the distribution channel according to the stage in the product life cycle
- Length of distribution channel from production to sales
- Avoiding conflict between distribution channels
- This involves strategic choices among a range of possibilities
- Personal selling- individual sales people meet customers(this requires high gross margins)
- Public relations- Stories are placed in various media to transmit the company’s message to its customers
- Direct mail- Using databases to identify and target potential customers who are likely to buy the product
- Trade fairs and exhibitions
- Advertising- In a variety of media
- Sponsorship- A company pays to be associated with an event
However, in some markets for some products, personal contacts and commission paid to important people are essential parts of promotion. This is sometimes considered as corrupt. But, it is required for success.
In e-businesses, there is viral marketing, where the customers recommend the product to their friends and news spread like a virus. For example, Hotmail.
- In this case, people involved at the interface and who are in contact with the customers are a valuable source of information about customer requirements and preferences.
- In service industries, process of accessing and receiving the service is an important part of the marketing mix. The strategic choices include in this are
- Technology- to use call centers, direct contact, web based service
- Customer co-production-choosing how much work the customer has to do to get service benefits
- This includes the physical appearance of all the
elements of the product and service that the customer experiences. They
- Physical product design
- Staff uniforms and grooming
- Printed matter
- Website design
- Logos and other branding tools
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The success of a factory depends on rigorous inspection at every stage of the process and ability to meet stringent working conditions required by customers.
This is core because there is greater transparency in flat world. For example, in 2000, activists with the Hong Kong Christian Industrial Committee(HKCIC) reported that toys for Mc Donald’s Happy Meals were being produced by a supplier that employed children as young as 14 years old. The story had roots like follows.
Mc Donald’s had outsourced the production of its Happy Meal toys to Sinon Marketing Hong Kong Ltd. This company in turn hired a factory in Hong Kong-City Toys, Ltd- to make the toys. However, when the above story broke out, both the factory and Mc Donalds stated that they did not know it. But, the damage had been done and all what the consumers and critics saw were Mc Donald’s toys being made by underage workers. For instance, The Child Labor News service ran the headlines as “Little slaves pack (Un)happy meals”
Furthermore, in the U.S., Germany, Australia and Canada, one fifth of the customers claim to read company CSR reports when making investment decisions.
Thereby, the best thing to do is to have a code of conduct and business processes. This will help to ensure compliance even when manufacturing is dispersed. This is because, where a rigid control of day to day operations is not possible, a set of laws and policy manuals will be a powerful way to ensure that all players understand what is expected of the entire network.
However, creating a code is not enough, rigorous monitoring and certification is also needed. For instance, an annual recertification process ensures that companies are actively tested for their ability to meet expectations, rather than waiting for problems to emerge. In this case, keeping the monitoring division independent from the business is important.
Also, the compliance division should be able to act autonomously and swiftly to address problems even at the expense of short term earnings.
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