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Business objectives as you have learned in the previous lesson, are key to business success. There are two main types of business objectives; Financial and non-financial.
Financial objectives are going to be targets or goals in relation to financial performance. But, it’s not just about sales or profit.
Financial objectives can cover a range of different types of financial performance.
They are quite important when it comes to effective management of a business.
- Revenue objectives
To achieve 10 million pounds with the sales, really does Drive and focus the attention of management’s and employees on what you need to do to achieve that objective.
Perhaps, the most common financial objectives set by businesses of all sizes and types.
A particular value- for example, 10 billion pounds worth in sales each year
A percentage growth in revenues-for example, growing revenues by a 20% per year
Sales maximization- a potentially dangerous objective because here the aim is not to maximize profits, but to simply grow as fast and as far as possible regardless of whether or not those sales are profitable.
Market share- to increase our revenues faster than the growth of the market
2. Cost minimization objectives
Minimize costs; variable costs and fixed costs- keep costs as low as possible also consistent with achieving our other objectives and also importantly without damaging the business’s level or reputation for quality. It’s more about efficiency and speed rather than cutting corners to reduce quality.
But, hopefully the overall effect is to reduce costs and if you are successful in minimizing your costs, there are a number of benefits that flow from this.
3. Profit objectives
These are particularly common in larger businesses particularly those that whose shares are traded on stock markets. They’ll often talk about their target level of profitability, both in terms of the absolute amount for example making a profit of say 10 million pounds a year but also they often talk in terms of their profitability.
If you’re operating in a market where competitors have a higher level of profitability, a higher profit margin that often is a good reason to set a profit objective where you at least achieve the same profit margin as competitors and even better be than now.
4. Remain solvent
To continue to trade and therefore it’s important to set objectives in relation to cash flow. You will certainly set an objective for cash flow to be within a range that’s acceptable and as a consequence of setting cashflow objectives is that you’ll often be able to make some decisions in relation to aspects such as how much inventory hold or how long you allow your customers or receivables to pay their bills.
Mosquito bites last a few seconds, but the irritation sticks around long after the mosquito is gone.
The science behind a mosquito bite is that female mosquitoes use specialized sense organs to hone in on the best spot on your body, to probe for a blood meal. She uses substances on the surface of your skin as indicators of where she is most likely to strike blood.
Once she lands on you, the female mosquito spits on her victim’s skin to numb the area where her thin sharp proboscis will go in search of blood. But, finding a blood vessel on the first attempt isn’t always easy.
The hungry mosquito moves her needle-like proboscis around in your skin tissue searching for the ideal place to tap into a blood source. When she does find a blood vessel, she injects saliva to prevent clotting and to keep your blood flowing. She then uses a specialized pumping system to suction blood cells up through her feeding tube.
This system is so powerful. It can cause a blood vessel to collapse during a meal. Feeding will continue until her belly is full or until she’s noticed and slapped.
A female mosquito can take in two to three times her body weight in blood at a single feeding. After the mosquito bite, a bump on your skin is caused by your body’s immune response to mosquito saliva, which is an allergen.
During an allergic reaction, the immune system releases fluid and cells into the site of the bite to destroy the foreign substance. This extra fluid in cells results in the swelling and itching that accompanies a bite.
Some mosquito bites are bigger and itchier than others. This is because the mosquito had to move her proboscis around to find a vessel which means that she spread more saliva over a greater area. Most times, the sneaky pests get away with all of this without being noticed.
Everybody wants to kill mosquitoes. But, in Singapore, they create mosquitoes and spread them in the millions to fly free in the country. The first thing on your mind is why are they doing this?
Mosquitoes aren’t just annoying, they are also deadly. Many female mosquitoes have dengue virus and just like malaria, you can get dengue from a mosquito bite. In severe cases, you could die.
Between 50 and 500 million people get dengue every year and 10 to 20 thousand people die from mosquito bites. So, if you want to eliminate dengue you must kill all the dengue mosquitoes everywhere.
But, they are hard to find and therefore, hard to kill. So, how do you stop mosquitoes?
A team of researchers in Singapore came up with an idea. They stop mosquitoes from having babies and that’s exactly what they did. They created a new type of mosquito that is so strong that it can go out there and find all the bad mosquitos and stop them from having babies.
So, apparently this is like a mosquito nursing room and there’s like hundreds of thousands, if not millions of mosquitos right here waiting to be released to the outside world.
This is as crazy as it sounds. This new mosquito doesn’t bite or hurt you at all. If this good mosquito falls in love with a bad mosquito, the bad mosquito will no longer be able to have kids. No new babies, no new mosquitoes.
So, Singapore created millions of these good mosquitos and put them in a mosquito gun and blasted them to neighborhoods, to rooftops, to gardens, everywhere. The good mosquitos make it with the bad ones and they could no longer reproduce.
In no time, all mosquitoes good and bad will die naturally without having any kids. This is literally how Singapore is fighting the dengue virus. Dengue mosquitoes dropped significantly by more than 90 percent and saved many residents from the virus threat.
This ingenious method is such a success, that they are opening a mosquito Factory in Singapore just to fight dengue. This factory is so advanced, it can create tens of thousands of good mosquitos every single day.
Considering about global production, some of the core decisions to be made, include where to produce, strategic role of any production site used and make or buy decision. Additionally, two key supply chain functions should be focused.
According to Hill and Hult (2017), logistics is the part of the supply chain that plans, implements and controls the effective flows and inventory of raw material, component parts and products used in manufacturing.
The core activities performed in logistics include
- global distribution center management
- inventory management
- packaging and materials handling
- reverse logistics
Global distribution center or warehouse is a facility that positions and allows customization of products required for delivery, to worldwide wholesalers or retailers or directly to consumers anywhere in the world. These distribution centers are used by manufacturers, importers, exporters, wholesalers, retailers, transportation companies and other agencies. A distribution center is at the center of the global supply chain. This is mainly due to the order processing and fulfillment part.
Hence, distribution centers are the foundation of a global supply network. They allow either a single location or satellite warehouses to store quantities and assortments of products. They also allow for value added customization. Thereby, they should be located strategically in the global marketplace with the consideration of the total labor and transportation cost.
Global inventory management is the decision making process related to raw materials, work-in-progress and finished goods for a MNC. These decisions include quantity of inventory to hold, what form to hold in and where to locate it in the supply chain.
For example, Toyota has about 8.7% of its assets in terms if inventory. A company’s global inventory strategy must effectively trade off the service and economic benefits of making products in large quantities and positioning them near customers against risk of having too much stock.
Packaging is in all shapes, sizes, forms and uses. This has three forms.
- Primary packaging holds the product.
- Secondary packaging is designed to contain several primary packages.
- Transit packaging is the pallet or unit load used to transport both primary and secondary packaging.
Thereby, regardless of where the product is in the global supply chain, packaging is intended to achieve a set of multi layered functions.
- Ability to handle the product during transport
- Ability to be stored for typical lengths of time for a particular product category.
- Provide convenience expected both by supply chain partners and end customers
- Ability to contain the product’s properly
- Preserve the products to maintain their freshness or newness
- Provide the necessary security and safety to ensure that the products reach their end destination in their intended shape
- Give logical and sufficient instructions for the use of the products inside the package
- State compelling product guarantee
- Inform about service for the product- if and when it is needed
This refers to the movement of raw material, component parts and finished goods throughout the global supply chain. This typically represents the largest percentage of any logistics budget.
The primary drivers of transportation rates and the resulting aggregate cost are distance, transport mode, size of load, load characteristics and oil prices. In this case, the transport cost overseas is highly affected by the economies of scale. Therefore, larger shipments are usually less expensive than smaller shipments. Characteristics of the shipment also matters. For example, the product density, value, its perishability, potential for damage should be considered.
Reverse logistics is the process of planning, implementing and controlling efficient flow of inventory, from the point of consumption to the origin. Thereby, reverse logistics aims to optimize the after market activity. This saves both money and environmental resources. Thereby, it is critical for global supply chains.
In the case of purchasing, first an appropriate strategy should be developed for global purchasing and then the type of purchasing strategy should be selected.
In this case, there are 5 levels from domestic to global.
- Level 1- Domestic purchasing
- Level 2 & 3- International purchasing
- Level 4 & 5-Global purchasing
Accordingly, there are 4 main choices of purchasing strategies.
- Domestic internal purchasing
- Global internal purchasing
- Domestic external purchasing
- Global external purchasing
The above strategies come into the international arena with a set of generic options. These include
- Outsourcing(External purchasing)
- Buying products or services from one of its suppliers that produces them somewhere else.
- In-sourcing(Internal purchasing)
- Producing internally
- Off shoring(Global external purchasing)
- Buys from one of its suppliers producing outside the home country
- Off shore outsourcing(Global external purchasing)
- Buying from a supplier other than the one in which the product is manufactured
- Near shoring (Facilitates global external purchasing)
- Transfers technology processes to suppliers in nearby countries
- Employees inside the firm and external suppliers both are used to perform the tasks
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Arthritis is a common progressive condition that can cause people pain, even limit their daily activities. Commonly, what we most often deal with is called osteoarthritis. This is a typically degenerative condition that is a breakdown of cartilage.
Along with that breakdown of cartilage, you tend to get a buildup of bone or some spurring of the bone. Osteo arthritis can be age-related, injury-related or genetic.
The most common place to develop the condition is the knee, hip, hands and feet. When you’re dealing with a painful joint a lot of times you make unnecessary or accommodations that can be debilitating or cause other injuries or harm to other joints. But, physical therapy can teach patients safe ways to stay active.
The best things for a joint that’s arthritic is for it to actually move. Some of the advantages of therapy and movement in general is that it helps infuse the joint with some synovial fluid which is like a natural lubrication.
In addition to teaching patients safe movements, physical therapy can also educate patients on appropriate footwear, braces and assistive devices. Usually you can’t fully get rid of arthritis. But, there are ways that you can either maintain your healthy lifestyle or improve it. Maintaining a safe and active lifestyle can help patients manage their arthritis and prevent a future injury.
There are natural things patients can do to minimize the pain without taking medication. The food we eat can increase the inflammation levels in our body.
So, therefore if we are able to follow an anti-inflammatory diet with more antioxidants, we can help control some of the symptoms of arthritis or inflammation antioxidants lower levels of inflammation throughout the body. The goal is to minimize the overall symptoms.
So, the ache and the pain from arthritis may have a lower dependency on some of the medications. Food that are high in antioxidants like blueberries, grapes and greens can help with joint inflammation. But, foods that are processed high in fat and high in sugar can keep your joints inflamed.
Not only do we need our blues and our purples, we need red, yellow, orange and green nutrients, so plant-based materials every day to a regular healthy diet can help with day to day pain and swelling. Eating blueberries one time isn’t going to make your knee feel better. It’s your habit of including a healthy diet high in antioxidants, low in inflammatory foods like high fatty processed meats or high sugar foods that overtime is going to help lower the inflammation in your body.
In addition to fruits and vegetables, health experts also recommend patients maintain an active lifestyle to help prevent joint stiffness.
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The core of Vestel’s business is to design and manufacture products on a contract basis. This firm does not plan to compete in the European market with its own brand. The main competencies of this firm include assembly, outsourcing, logistics. Vestel is a supplier of B-market consumer electronics. They target the brand owners and retailers.
Vestel is successful in competition with Chinese television manufacturers because of the flexibility of manufacturing, delivery costs and delivery items. Considering Vestel’s desire to enter Europe, Vestel with an operating profit margin of 7.8% may find it hard in Europe. Considering the productivity, it is higher in Turkey than in China, but there are labor cost differences which do not give a competitive advantage of entering Europe.
Also, since majority of TV sales are for flat screen technology, there should be a reliable source of flat screens and controls. So, delivery times should be cut from 1.5 to 2 months to 1-2 weeks or a Chinese competitor should build a plant in or closer to Europe.
An alternative will be to build or acquire a brand or brands in the A market and gain the earning from the brand, rather than from the manufacturing process.
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Elixir technology’s main product is Elixir Report which is designed for both software developers and end-users. This product forms part of the reporting function for customer companies. The core competencies of Elixir include code writing in Java, adaptation of the product for different languages and cultures and professional support service provision.
Elixir mainly serves a broad spread of companies, from small to large including software developers, governments as well as companies. Elixir localized its products by translating its software into customers’ languages. Furthermore, Elixir software is aligned with the cultural context without being specific what that means.
The localization of Elixir software was done by developing their own understanding of the market or partnering with somebody who already understands the cultural context. Also, Elixir occupied a niche in flexible reporting software, customized to local markets. This was done by using a product that was 50% cheaper than its competitors.
Elixir’s customers were IT directors of companies and government departments. However, Elixir did not follow cost leadership and differentiation across the market. Yet, the feature of bi-directional text writing seems to have given it one unique part of the market.
Elixir’s strategy was to be cheap and differentiated. With this, the need for cost competitiveness and localization was also seen. Thereby, they used a multi domestic strategy.
Elixir’s entry into the international market, specially to Japan was made possible through its initial partner who was able to communicate in English and was already selling complementary products. The firms were sensitive to the local market and therefore used own branding.
However, Elixir was less successful in China. This is mainly because Chinese partners wanted something for nothing. Thereby, when trying to enter Middle East, Elixir wants an active partner.
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HIV is a tiny virus carried in the blood in male and female sex fluids. HIV infected fluids can enter a person’s body through breaks in the skin and enter the blood.
Tiny poly cells are present in the blood to protect a person from germs that cause infections such as TB and flu. These poly cells are called CD4 cells. HIV harms the body by attacking the CD4 cells and making the body more prone to other illness causing germs.
The good news is that a person with HIV who lives a healthy lifestyle, gets regular medical care and takes medication, can live for 25 years or more after infection. However, the individual who fails to take these steps will experience a series of infections; lose weight and usually die within 10 to 12 years.
A person who has HIV but does not get treatment by a doctor or nurse will go through the following stages.
Acute HIV infection at some time during the first month or so. After HIV enters the body, the person may have a flu-like illness. Symptoms may include fever, a tea rash headache, swollen lymph nodes and sore throat.
Some people have no symptoms at all. The viral levels at this time are very high because at first, the body is unable to fight the virus. During this time, the HIV antibody test is negative. This is called the window period.
Within about one to two months, the body begins to produce antibodies to fight the virus and viral levels drop. The rapid HIV antibody test detects these antibodies.
A blood test can be done in the hospital or clinic to measure how many CD4 cells a person has. This test is called the CD4 count. During this time of acute HIV infection, the CD4 count goes from a normal level of 1200 down to about 900.
The viral levels at this time are very high because at first the body is unable to fight the virus within about one to two months. The body begins to produce antibodies to fight the virus and viral levels drop after the initial infection.
The body can effectively fight the HIV for about five years. This period is called stage 1. During this time, the CD4 poly cell levels drop from about 900 to 500.
At the same time, the HIV levels in the blood slowly rise. Although generally symptom-free, a person in this stage can still pass the virus on to others from about six to nine years.
After infection, a person is in stage two of HIV infection. During this phase, the CD4 count may go down from about 500 to 350. At the same time, the HIV levels in the blood slowly rise, swollen glands appear in the neck, armpits or in the groin. A person may feel weak and tired and experience fevers and weight loss.
The number of CD4 cells is now so low that other germs that cause infections find it easier to invade the body. This makes it so prone to coughs and colds, skin rashes, shingles, fungal nail infections. And, mouth sores become more common in this stage.
After about nine to eleven years of HIV infection, the CD4 count drops below 350 and the person enters stage 3. HIV viral levels continue to increase. In addition to all areas, sometimes listed a person may have abdominal pain, ongoing diarrhea, cough and headaches.
Additionally, painful blisters of the mouth or genitals may happen again and again within about 11 or 12 years of HIV infection. Without medical treatment, a person enters stage four.
Another name for stage 4 is AIDS. The CD4 count drops below 200 and the body begins to lose its long battle against HIV. Viral levels are high in the blood. Severe life-threatening infections or care in this stage.
ARVs work better if started before the later stages of HIV. The decision of when to start ARVs is made by your health care provider. These can dramatically reduce the HIV in the blood.
Other medicines may be prescribed to prevent and treat other infections such as TB. It is very important that once ARVs are started that they are taken as directed. If doses are missed or the ARV stopped entirely, the ARVs may stop working against the HIV in the future. The good news is that ARVs can give a person many more healthy years of life.
HIV tests used to take weeks. Now, it’s just a minute.
Three little vials and a drop of blood is all it takes. For a clear diagnosis, a community clinic performs 9,000 HIV tests on people a year. In Canada, the demand is as strong as ever and getting these kits on pharmacy shelves and in people’s hands could meet the need.
A real option of a fast test but also a private test and something they can get outside the health authorities. According to research and health institutes, Canada’s HIV numbers aren’t going down, there’s a new diagnosis every four hours. It’s an infection rate similar to the European Union’s.
But, Canada is falling behind high-income countries like Germany, Sweden and Australia and some Canadians are more vulnerable than others. Black and indigenous people are less than 9% of Canadian population. Yet, they make up almost half of new HIV cases.
Experts estimate as many as a quarter of people with HIV have not been tested for it. Stigma is part of the problem. People don’t want to go to a overcrowded sexual health clinic to get tested.
People still fear facing homophobia from their doctor. These things can be addressed with a home self testing kit inside your self testing kit. That’s why the European Union approved the same take home tests for sale three years ago.
Health Canada wants clinical trial evidence from Canada before it does the same. The researcher heading that trial says Canada is playing catch-up not just in approving the tests for sale but in attitudes towards HIV self testing.
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Those distinctive Santa Claus pot bellies that make guys look a little bit like they’re pregnant, are not caused by beer alone. Scientists from NYU and UC say, it’s a myth, there’s nothing special or magical about beer that causes a special beer gut. Alcohol is alcohol and your body can’t tell the difference whether it’s beer, wine or hard alcohol.
The reason why some beer drinkers get a beer belly comes down to a few other factors. First, the serving size of a beer is 12 to 16 ounces. A glass of wine is 5 to 6 ounces and a shot is only 1 to 2 ounces.
So beer is often consumed in higher quantities than other types of alcohol and so you’re consuming more calories. There are also lifestyle factors at play like poor diet. You often see beer served alongside foods like sausages, hamburgers and pizza. A very poor diet with or without beer can alone cause the pot belly and you’re even more prone if you’re over 35 and or if you’re male.
After 35 years, metabolism slows down. You can’t eat as much as you used to. This sounds terrible and this is why some older folks put on weight. They don’t react to their slower metabolism.
You also don’t really see pop buildings in women and that’s because women tend to store fat in their hips, their thighs and their booties instead of their waist. But, if you’ve ever encountered an authentic belly; so big and round that you can rest a drink on it, you know there’s something a little different going on there.
It’s not squishy or jiggly. It’s kind of hard like you could pop it and you can’t just pinch the fat. There are two reasons for this. If they’re an extreme alcoholic, they could have ascites which is fluid retention usually caused by liver disease.
For most, beer bellies is because of visceral fat. This is a fat that lives not right under the skin like that squishy subcutaneous fat packed deeper in the body around the organs. It feels hard because it pushes against your abdominal muscles.
Visceral fat is higher risk health-wise because it can cause insulin resistance diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease. Subcutaneous fat is generally less worrisome and everyone needs at least a little to cushion their nerves, blood vessels, your skeleton and to regulate body temperature.
Take sumo wrestlers as an example. These guys look really fat. They eat a ton of food but they’re healthier than others who look just like them. The wrestlers don’t have insulin resistance, heart disease or diabetes and it’s because they have a lot of subcutaneous fat and very little of that beer belly visceral fat.
In 2007, German scientists at the University of Leipzig, successfully isolated three genes that process body fat. When they looked at an individual’s gene expression, they could correctly predict if they would store more visceral fat or subcutaneous fat. This is why someone’s weight is an imperfect measure of their overall health and it’s also why the last beer belly contributor is genetics.
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Dogs are very sensitive animals which can easily perceive whether we are happy, sad or even just tired. Fortunately, they are also very loving creatures and their affection and company can come in very handy.
During these times, however often we humans are not as good at reciprocating the sensitivity. As with human beings, canines are susceptible to depression.
They may not be caused by the same issues. But, if we are aware of our dogs eventual behavior, we should be able to easily identify a bite of depression whether short or prolonged. However, if a dog has only recently been adopted into our family, it may be difficult to differentiate between their normal demeanor and depression.
The most recognizable symptoms include a lack of appetite, apathy, inactivity and a lack of affection towards their caregivers. We may also observe hiding, sleep excessively or an unwillingness to engage in play activity.
However, it is essential to point out that some of these signs may be present due to an underlying condition or dizziness. This is why it is so important to take them to a vet to rule out a physical health problem. Causes of depression and dogs are varied. But, they usually appear after a significant change to their routine.
A traumatic experience, hormonal changes or as we have said, disease determining this underlying cause is essential in solving the behavioral problem. The death of a loved one or the introduction of a new family member such as a baby are common causes of depression in dogs.
But, there are many possible issues at play. When depression generates a clinical picture which puts the dog’s health at risk, it will be essential to go to a veterinarian preferably one specialized in ethology. If they also show behavioral changes which involve aggression, going to professional dog trainer or educator will be essential.
The situation can worsen and become dangerous. If your dog is going through an episode of sadness or depression, do not hesitate to follow advice to improve their well-being.
- Offer between three and four quality walks a day where they can smell their environment and interact with other dogs
- Don’t forget the physical exercise and play before going home
- Spending time with your dog doesn’t mean being by their side without doing anything. It requires quality time speaking to them, petting and generally offering a lot of love and affection.
Mental stimulation is as important as physical exercise. So, in your day to day, you shouldn’t neglect basic obedience, training, mental stimulation exercises and intelligence toys.
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