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Business IGCSE May 2017 Paper 1 Discussion

Hi, everyone!! Given below is a discussion of the Cambridge IGCSE Business Studies 2017 May Paper 1. The paper is centered on the following topics

  • Market Research
  • Marketing Mix
  • Liquidity
  • Demand and supply
  • Stakeholders and businesses
Gradient of graphs

Hi everyone!! The discussion below is based on finding the gradient of straight lines. It is mainly aimed at benefiting those sitting for GCSE exams. Good luck, guys!!

Mathematics A 2019 Jan 2H paper discussion

Hi, everyone!! Below is a discussion of Mathematics A 2019 January 2H Paper. The discussion is mainly centered on the following topics:

  • Probability
  • Venn Diagram
  • Area
  • HCF and LCM
  • Compound interest
  • Speed
  • Simultaneous equations
  • Algebra
  • Volume
  • Surface Area
  • Histograms
  • Geometry
  • Graphs

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6 Corona Virus Preventive tips

Let us look at six tips for low carb coronavirus preparedness. You know about adopting social distancing. I’m sure you’ve heard that and hopefully are implementing that but also how to stock your fridge with low carb options I mean so many people are going to the stores and buying the pastas and the crackers and the dried goods that basically last forever but eggs can last for five weeks in the fridge.  With enough preparation and enough thought you really can stick with a low carb lifestyle, eat healthy even during this period of a self-quarantine or sheltering in place in promoting social isolation.

Boosting your immune system to fight the corona virus; we’ve seen fantastical claims on what vitamin C can do about, what silver nanoparticles can do, what essential oils can do but what is the evidence really show? Our immune system isn’t just one thing. Our immune system is this intricate system where everything sort of plays together and it has to do with our baseline health and it has to do with so many different factors on the inner play on each other. It’s hard to test any experimental study. What we want to know is does something reduce your risk of getting an infection?

We don’t really have any high-quality human data to say that eating low carb or eating keto is going to reduce your risk of getting the corona virus. That does not exist now. There was a recent study in mice that showed a keto diet reduced their risk of getting influenza.

The higher the blood sugar, the higher the infection risk and the lower the chance of recovering from infections. So, putting all that together make sense that you want a diet you want a lifestyle that’s going to keep your blood sugar low. Keep your blood sugar steady.

The basics: the hand washing, not smoking because of the lung complications, getting adequate sleep now actually studies showing that you’re more prone to infection risks with less than seven hours of sleep.  Certainly less than five hours of sleep in one night likely isn’t going to do it but if it adds up over time then you might be at higher risk and one of the things that impacts sleep the most is the blue light from our devices and if we’re all shut in and locked at home one thing we were doing more of is more tablets, more phones, more computers, so get those blue blocking glasses on or look for other activities that don’t involve tech. This is a great opportunity to read books not e-books but read books.

Exercise is a great one because there’s studies that show that long-term exercise let can improve immune function in your decreased risk of infections. Now, those are observational trials. They have confounding various bolts but here’s the kicker, there’s enough to suggest that you shouldn’t try long term or sorry long duration greater than an hour and a half or high intensity exercise acutely because that may acutely decrease your immune system. Also athletes who overtrained or at a higher risk of infection so I encourage people to get outside be active, do moderate exercise but avoid the high-intensity interval training. Certainly, if you’re new to it and if you already do it maybe bring it down a notch just to help reduce that risk of suppressing your immune system temporarily of course.

Stress management is a big one and also drinking alcohol in moderation. A lot of people are turning to alcohol to sort of deal with the frustration and the stress and I get that. There’s plenty of evidence out there; heavy drinking can suppress the immune system and increase risk of infections.

Vitamin C supplement is another big one. Vitamin C is a water-soluble. Vitamin at 2,000 milligrams or less there’s likely no danger to taking it. So, I recommend people take up to 2,000 milligrams a day to help reduce your risk of infection especially in a time like this.

Vitamin D that actually is a large meta-analysis on Studies on vitamin D that showed supplementing did slightly reduce the risk of infection. Most prominently in those who are low on their vitamin D level. So, if you are low now is the chance to get that level up right now, it is the time I should say to get that level up. You can supplement with two thousand international units.

Other things like zinc may be helpful. If you’re going to take zinc, take it orally and less than  40 milligrams per day and that also may be beneficial as there’s some evidence that says that reduces the duration of a cold.

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Anti-aging skin care routine

We are going to talk about when and how to start anti-aging and what your skincare routine should look like for every age group. So, let’s get started. Our skin is an ever-changing, living, work. It knows how to regulate, rejuvenate, repair and also it regenerates new skin cells every single day. It knows how to push away that skin cells every single day. However, this process dysfunction will slow down with biological aging and also your lifestyle, your diet, whatever you’re doing with your skincare. That’s when your skincare products come in to support. This process to kind of push your skin cells, to do its job.

When it comes to anti-aging skincare routine, there are three main strategies that you can consider. First, prevention, second, maintenance and third, reversal. In your teenagers all the way up to early 20s your skin is already very awesomely independent. So, you might not need a lot of support from skincare products. But, I think it’s also a really prime time for you to form really good skincare habits. Look for simple formulas that are gentle, mild enough, that you can use every single day.

I will be going through each step so that you know what to look for. Cleansing; the most fundamental rule when it comes to cleansing is to be as gentle as possible. We have to protect our skin barrier as much as possible to prevent the signs of aging and cleanser is inevitably the most skin barrier damaging product. We should choose a cleanser that is really gentle on your skin that in fact leaves your skin really plump, supple and hydrated after wash and ideally that is close to your skin’s natural peel. It doesn’t need to be fancy, it doesn’t need to be expensive.

Number two is to properly moisturize. I know it is very easy to neglect this moisturizing stuff especially in your teenagers because your receive in production is going out of the roof. At the moment our skin feels the most comfortable in repairing, rejuvenating and regulating on its own in a really well-hydrated environment. So, your moisturizer doesn’t need to be really thick or buttery or waxy at all. She’s a really lightweight gel. Moisturizers that you feel the most comfortable wearing should be used.

Step number three start protecting and stop baking. Apply a really good broad-spectrum daily sunscreen that you feel the most comfortable in applying every single thing. Without a doubt, a lot of skincare experts including dermatologists, biologists, estheticians and even your mom would agree with me; the most cost-effective and the best anti-aging skincare product is going to be sunscreen. That’s simply because the UV damage is going to be the number one cause when it comes to skin aging but it damages our skin in multiple different love.

Let’s learn about the two main UV radiations that affect our skin. If there are UVA and UVB, UVB is the one that intensely burns our skin especially in summer times, especially on really sunny day. It has a shorter wavelength. So, it reaches our epidermis which is the top layer of the skin. However, the power is very intense. Then, there is UVA which is more associated with skin aging. This has a longer wavelength- that is present all year round, even in winter, even on cloudy and rainy days. And, it is able to penetrate the glass or the window. So, it’s actually present indoors – also UVA penetrates deeper into our skin reaching the lower level or the mid-level of the skin called dermis and dermis is where it decides our skin bounciness basically because it has collagen protein and elastin fibers and all of that.

When you’re looking for a sunscreen, make sure it is broad-spectrum or it has really good UVA protection as well and we want to apply at least SPF of 30 on a daily basis. The best sunscreen ever is something that will encourage you to apply every single day and everyone has different preferences when it comes to sunscreen texture.

When we’re moving on to our late 20s and early 30s, this is the time where you will start feeling some physical-biological changes and this is when I start noticing my metabolism slowing down significantly even though I was eating the same amount of food. I was just becoming rounder and rounder. So, that’s when I started working out and going to the gym and trying to maintain this bodily function to not like drop. So, we are entering maintenance mode.

We’re trying to balance out. What is slowly missing was once present in our skin but again it doesn’t need to be too extreme or too crazy or too harsh or intense. In this stage we might need a little bit more hydration. So, look for a really good humectant ingredient. Humectants are basically like water magnets. They just draw moisture. They draw hydration from the air from your skincare products and from your skin to make sure the top layer of their skin is really supple and nicely hydrated. Cumec does include glycerin, hyaluronic acid, sodium, Halloran and a lot of really great natural moisturizing factors that your skin already produces. Those are really good

ingredients to look for in skincare products. You are really diligent and hydrating and well nourishing and well protecting your skin. You might not need to introduce retinol or other active ingredients at this stage.

If you are someone who lived in such a developed metropolitan city that has little to no green space such as New York where a soul or Hong Kong you are exposing your skin to a lot of great external stressors that can stress out your skin, cause free radicals including toxins, radiation, and stress.

You know what Department slows down as we age? Exfoliation department; our skin naturally regenerates new healthy skin cells every single day pushing away that skin cells so that our skin maintains that really plump and useful. So, I think this is a really good time to start your

chemical exfoliation game by incorporating some alpha hydroxy acid and alpha hydroxy acids are basically chemical exfoliants that unglued that skin cell bonds that kind of makes your skin easier to push away that skin cell so when it’s renewing on its own exfoliation, it does get addictive.

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Lend a helping hand during this pandemic!!

You’ve probably seen some of these posts calling for help to sew down the curb. What it means is these hospitals are in desperate need of PPE( personal protective equipment) for their doctors, nurses, cleaners and everybody else on the front lines of this pandemic. These posts are trying to rally people to make those supplies.

But, can hospitals even use handmade items and if you can’t so are there other things you can do to help instead. If you have any of these lying around, you should definitely donate them. N95 respirator masks are needed to protect healthcare workers from the COVID 19 coronavirus. Have you ever painted your house and bought a protective mask? You might have some of these laying or out construction workers, nail technicians, even people in wildfire zones, you might have these. If you do, your hospital could desperately use them. Now, there is a difference between dust masks and n95 respirators and n95 masks will block about 95% of all particles bigger than 0.3 microns in diameter.

So, it offers a lot more protection than just a regular mask. If you’re not sure, if you have one, check the packaging or the mask itself. If it doesn’t say N95 on it, it’s likely not ready for protection against the coronavirus. So, leave those at home unless you hear your hospital is accepting them.

All hospitals need the best thing that people can donate is kind of already vetted medical supplies. So, any spare protected medical supplies you have, can be donated not just wearable items like goggles, hair caps and shoe covers, but also unused rubbing alcohol disinfectant hand sanitizer and even thermometers are all in demand at the moment.

On the emergency department, they have to keep both nurses, attending physicians, residents physicians safe, but they also have to keep the translators safe, the secretary safe even the cleaning staff that are cleaning the room safe and so as you can imagine that’s just a ton of PPE that they need for each patient encounter.

Please do know about those hand-sewn masks people are starting to use the homemade masks as covers to protect their own surgical masks. So, unfortunately in a perfect world they’d wear these masks for each patient encounter and then switch out a new mask. Hospitals are also using the hand-sewn masks for patients to prevent contamination.

However, the CDC does say the fabric masks can be used as a last resort for health care workers when n95 masks aren’t available or when they’re being reused which is already happening in some hospitals. A few hospitals have even put up their own tutorials on how to make one if you can.

Some people are even 3d printing face shields in anticipation of the PPE supply shortage. These are simple to make with multiple plans already available online. Massachusetts General

Hospital is printing similar shields. They aren’t being used in these hospitals at the moment. But, they will be there. If the supply runs out many hospitals are accepting these homemade supplies as emergency backups and last-minute resorts.

If you are making items to donate, you try to do it in a sterile environment. If you have gloves available, wear them. If you don’t have gloves available, wash your hands.

Sometimes, you can reach out to the hospital and potentially help sort through some of the supplies that are donated or providing food for the frontline healthcare workers can be really helpful. Donating books or potentially toys to like the pediatric hospitals could be a huge help during this time. Fortunately, a lot of hospitals have to limit visitors and so I think having other things that we could provide people could be really helpful. Even phone calls can be helpful I think.  

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Micropropagation/Tissue Culture

If you already have an animal or plant with all the characteristics you want, then it would be ideal just to make loads and loads of identical copies of it. That is what cloning is making; genetically identical copies of organisms. This is done naturally in nature by organisms that do asexual reproduction by mitosis that produce exactly identical organisms.

Only one parent; there are no gametes involved, there is no mix in genetic information and all. The ostrich Ashley identical to each other so that is a type of cloning. Asexual reproduction; another type of cloning that done very easily is taking cuttings from plants has been done for hundreds of years. Gardeners take a separ cut off a stem from a plant that they particularly like and they stick that stem of the plant in the ground and it will grow into the same as their parent.

Plants though can be cloned now in a much more commercial scale by a more scientific process called tissue culture. Now, this is a sophisticated scientific technique which can produce thousands of clones in a short space of time and it’s known as micro propagation. The way you do it is; you find the plant you want with the desired characteristics. First growers can then just take a few plant cells from the tips of the shoots or the roots. We call these ex plants then they sterilize them to clean a micron ism’s and they place them in a little petri dish containing nutrient medium. They say they are grown in vitro. What we mean by that is in a lab outside the normal biological context, this nutrient medium contains all the growth hormones and the nutrients for the shoots and the roots to start growing.

So, just from a few tiny cells, you can start to get these tiny little plants. Growing the shoots are then removed from those initial ex plants. Once they get going and you can then move those to another Petrich and keep repeating it and repeating and repeating or repeating it. So, from one original plant you can end up getting thousands of ex plants which then will grow under optimal conditions into full size plants which can then be transferred into compost and into greenhouses to develop fully. They will all be identical to the original plant. Again, this is done all the way around the world in order to maximize the yield of certain crops such as bananas.

Now, there’s some good things about cloning plants. You get large quantities of plants very quickly. You can grow plant all year round. You can clone a bit rare or endangered plants to increase populations. New plants grown in sterile conditions so they’re pests and disease free.

If you did genetic engineering on a plant first and then cloned it, you would enough to do genetic engineering again. Because you’ve only had to do that complex process once and then you just clone that one of those at times. However, all the offspring are identical genetically and that means they are very vulnerable to diseases. You also need sterile lab facilities and they’re also really vulnerable to pests.

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Cloning will generate more human organs

The ability to create a clone used to be science fiction. Dr. Ian Wilmut’s group changed that in 1997 with the creation of Dolly the sheep. Since then, the debate on applying the technique to clone human beings has been ongoing.

Based on all the discussion, it may sound like cloning, human or otherwise, is an easy process.  

Simply put, clones are organisms that have identical genetic material. In other words, the sequence of bases in their DNA is exactly the same. Long before the birth of Dolly the sheep, clones had been observed in both nature and in the laboratory. When a couple has identical twins (or identical triplets, etc.), the children are clones of one another. A plant cutting can also be used to generate a clone.

Prior to 1996, it was thought that cloning an entire animal could only be done with embryonic cells; cells present in the early stages of an organism’s development. In the 1950s, scientists generated entire frogs from embryonic frog cells. After a small number of cell divisions, embryonic cells start to change into the different types of cells that an organism needs,  including cells that form muscle, blood, liver, etc. This process is called differentiation.

Although each of these cells has the same genetic material, each cell can only access the genes needed for its particular function. Before the experiment at the Roslin Institute, it was thought that once cells differentiated, they could not be used to generate an entire organism. For instance, in a sheep, udder cells could generate other udder cells, but not an entire sheep. The scientists at the Roslin Institute solved this problem by growing sheep udder cells under starvation conditions. This put the cells in a state similar to embryonic cells. This is called the G0 state.

An egg cell was taken from another sheep. The nucleus, which contains the genetic material, was removed from the egg cell using a very fine needle. They then used electric shock to fuse one starved udder cell with one nucleus-free egg cell. They made 277 of these fused cells. Although the egg cell came from a black-faced sheep, notice that the nucleus with the genetic material came from the white-faced sheep. These fused egg cells were then inserted into several different sheep. These surrogate mothers were also black-faced. Of the 277 fused cells, only one progressed to form a developed lamb.

Dolly was born on July 5, 1996. Scientists found that Dolly had the same DNA as the udder cells she came from. She is a clone of these udder cells. Dolly has given birth to a lamb named Bonnie, produced the natural way. Other lambs have been born at the Roslin Institute through their cloning process; some carry genes that will produce usable human drugs. A laboratory in Hawaii run by Dr. Ryuzo Yanagimachi was the second group to successfully clone an animal from an adult cell. They cloned mice using cumulus cells, a cell type found in the ovaries. The cloning method used by the lab in Hawaii was different in two ways from the method used to clone Dolly.

First, the cells used to clone the mice were not grown in culture, but instead were used immediately. Second the nucleus was removed from the cumulus cell and then directly injected into the egg cell. This egg cell’s nucleus had already been removed. The Yanagimachi lab used coat color to track genetic heritage. The cumulus cell comes from an agouti (brown) mouse, and the egg cell comes from a black mouse. The egg cell now had the same genetic information as the nucleus donor mouse. The egg cell was then activated and implanted into a white host mother.

On October 3, 1997, the host mouse gave birth to Cumulina, named after the cumulus cells she was cloned from. Cumulina is the same color as the mouse that donated the nucleus. DNA fingerprinting confirmed that Cumulina had the same DNA as the nucleus donor. The scientists have taken cells from Cumulina to make more clones. They have successfully made several generations of clones and all mice seem normal.

Dolly the sheep died at the age of six. Since the world said hello to Dolly, several other animals have also been cloned. Both Dolly and Cumulina were cloned from cells in the female reproductive system; cows have also been cloned using ovary and cumulus cells with the same method that was used to clone Dolly. Pigs have been added to the cloned animal menagerie.

Scientists hope to use cloned pigs to grow organs that can be transplanted into humans.

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Pure Mathematics 2013 November Paper discussion

Hi everyone. This video is based on the discussion of CIE 2013 November paper.

Lessons centered:

  • Graphs
  • Pythagoras Theorem
  • Quadratic Equations

Earn from home 2020

Hello everyone and welcome to where we teach you ways you can make money online from home. So, we are in a world crisis right now. With COVID 19 and thousands upon thousands of people have been forced into unemployment because they’ve lost their jobs. People who are already making money online using different online platforms are also noticing that job availability is very limited because so many people are competing for the same jobs and there just isn’t enough available for the demand.

My suggestions will be broken down into four sections. We’ll start with transcription jobs.  So, there are some companies where you get paid to transcribe audio into text. So, you’ll listen to an audio file or you’ll watch a video and listen to the audio file in English and then you need to type out in perfect English or pretty much perfect English. There are different guidelines for each of the websites which offer this employment opportunity. You need to have a good or an excellent level of English and you need a computer or a laptop.

Some of the few websites which offer these opportunities are QA world, which has a really easy test to get accepted. It is for beginners. Some people say that they struggle getting paid because you do have to have a good grade on your transcripts in order to get paid but the test is definitely the easiest. Right now job availability is average. Usually, there’s always calls coming in. But, you’ll notice that if all of a sudden there’s twenty new calls that you can transcribe, they will disappear within a 02:52 minute because people are just sitting there waiting for work. Especially right now the pay rate is quite low, it’s 20 cents per audio minute or 12 dollars more or less per audio hour. But, it is good for beginners.

I would say the second one which I think is even better than the QA world is Scribble. Scribble again is for beginners. Again, the test is pretty good because you can pick which test you want to do, which audio file you want to transcribe. There’s pretty good job availability. The pay rate is about 16 cents per audio minute or 10 dollars per audio hour. They do advertise that it’s up to twenty-five dollars per audio hour but I have not seen any file that is more than ten dollars per audio hour.

Then, we have Crowd-surf which I personally really like. Now crowd-surf has a reputation for giving accounts pretty easily to U.S. citizens and Canadian citizens. But, people who have applied even though you can apply if you’re international they say that they never hear back from them even if they’ve passed the test which is annoying.

Then, we have Castingwords and I would say this is again intermediate and the job availability unfortunately is quite poor. Even though there are lots of jobs always available it’s for people who have a higher level in Castingwords. It’s hard to get to a higher level unless you transcribe files. So, if you’re constantly refreshing the page and you get a few, eventually you will be able to make more money. But, that is also one you can consider applying for. The pay rate is between 17 cents and 92 cents per audio minute.

Finally, we have Rev and I would say this is more intermediate and advanced and I say that only because Rev has a reputation for being very strict on the files and they have to be pretty much perfect and also the tests are much more difficult to get into. Rev has a captioning program and also a transcription program; the job availability is quite good- it’s average but I would say average to good. The pay rate is between 30 cents and $1.1 per audio minute. If you work in the captioning program, you have to do a little bit more work. So, you get paid more. I think the pay rate is maybe 50 cents to $1.10 and then transcription is just it’s a little bit easier. But, the transcription test is definitely more difficult than the captioning test.

The second option you have to make money online right now is to sign up on websites to do micro tasks or micro-jobs. Some people also call this data entry. Here, you get paid a small amount to complete a small task.

First, ‘Remo tasks’ always has some type of job availability. Anyone can do it. The thing is they do have certain countries where you’re not allowed to do it.  The pay rate is super low. It only works out to about $1 to $2 per hour on average. The good thing is that it pays through PayPal which I know some countries don’t support PayPal. But, if you do, there are no fees and it gets deposited once a week right away and there’s no minimum payout. So, if you make fifty-nine cents, you’ll get that once a week. The thing is with Remo tasks you need some training and a small test before you can take tasks. But, the training is really easy and the test isn’t difficult. They’ll tell you if you get it wrong and you have unlimited retries. until you get it right. It is tedious, boring work sometimes. They want you to paint in where there’s a road and where there’s a highway and things like that. There are lots of different types of tasks. So, it’s not something I think I would recommend trying to make a lot of money.

The next website is called click worker. Click worker has lots of different types of jobs. The ones I’ve been seeing lately are taking selfies of yourself to do some artificial intelligence training. So, they might want you to take a picture of yourself looking up at the ceiling or down at the floor or to the left or to the right and the pay is pretty good if you don’t mind taking pictures of yourself. They also want you to do videos of yourself and you get paid pretty good money. The job availability is average. It’s okay. There’s always something and the pay rate is between 35 cents and more than $25 per task.

The new one that I’ve discovered that I’m really happy and excited about to tell you guys about is called micro workers. Micro workers- you can be from any country and I believe they pay through PayPal and Payoneer. There’s a great job availability. There are lots of jobs available. You can get between five cents and two dollars per task. Some of the tasks are really small. For example, they want you to like a comment or something on Facebook or share a post or go and write a song or sometimes even vote for the website to be the best. So, it’s a lot of little tasks like that and then they want you to take a print screen or a screen shot to prove that you did it and then you’ll get paid.

The third option of how to make money under quarantine is to sign up and create an account with either fiver or Upwork. With fiver you will use your own skill sets to create jobs or gig that people can pay you money for starting at five dollars. You could offer your skills as a translator, a proofreader even in your own language, writing skills, graphic creation, blog commenting, article writing and so on.

Upwork is different. In that, you’ll search for a job and then use connects to apply for the jobs. So, you get 60 free connects each month to apply for jobs which is plenty and you can create a profile and show off some of your skills and experience and there are hundreds and hundreds of different jobs. Kinds of jobs including writing, translating, virtual assistant, data entry, proofreading, video editing, graphic design and more every day. There are hundreds and hundreds of new jobs posted. So, I definitely recommend checking Upwork out and our final section is website testing. So, with these websites you get paid to test out different websites.

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