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IGCSE ICT Spreadsheet Practice

Hi everyone. The video below discusses a few sample assessment materials for IGCSE ICT practical examination. The video mainly focuses on Spreadsheet tasks.

Lesson centered on:

  • Spreadsheet
  • Databases

ICT 2019 May Practical Exam

Hi everyone. The video below discusses the 2019 May/June ICT Paper 2 Database Practical question.

Lesson centered on:

  • Ms-Excel
  • Database
  • Tables
  • Foreign Key
Biology IGCSE Edexcel Paper 1

Hi, everyone. The video below will give you a quick review of the Edexcel Biology IGCSE Paper 1 syllabus.

Lesson centered on:

  • Characteristics of living organisms
  • Variety of living organisms
  • Level of organisation
  • Cell structure
  • Biological molecules
  • Movement of substances into and out of cells
  • Nutrition
  • Respiration
  • Gas exchange
  • Transport
  • Excretion
  • Co-ordination and response
  • Reproduction
  • Inheritance
  • The organism in the environment
  • Feeding relationships
  • Cycles within ecosystems
  • Human influences on the environmen

Skincare tips for dry skin

Moisturizer is an essential part of any skincare routine. But, if you make these mistakes, you could sabotage your skin. The first mistake women make is not using a moisturizer at all. Everyone needs a moisturizer. No matter how oily your skin, a hydrated face reflects light and plumps up the skin for a more youthful appearance. It also prepares your skin for more irritating ingredients like retinol. Even those with oily skin still need to use a moisturizer.

In fact, not using a moisturizer could be the reason your skin is oily in the first place. That’s because the dryness spurs more sebum to compensate resulting in grease your skin. So, make sure to use a good moisturizer at least once a day.

The next mistake is applying it too aggressively. You have to take your time and be gentle when applying your moisturizer. Especially around the eyes tugging on your skin can actually cause wrinkles and sagging skin. So, make sure to use your ring finger when you apply because it’s a weaker finger. You’re forced to be more gentle and remember always apply in its upward motion.

The third biggest mistake is using a product that’s not right for your skin type. While everyone needs a moisturizer, not every moisturizer works for everyone. You need to look for a product with ingredients for your skin. For instance, if you have oily skin, you have to use a lotion instead of a heavy cream and if you have sensitive skin, you should avoid any product with fragrances. Also, it’s important to remember that your skin type may change over time meaning your moisturizer needs may change as well. Ask your dermatologist for the best moisturizer for you.

The next mistake is you apply your makeup or foundation too soon after applying your moisturizer. If you do this, your makeup isn’t likely to last all day. So, give it a few minutes to soak in. If you’re in a big rush, blot your face with tissue before applying your makeup.

Finally, the last biggest mistake is that you don’t exfoliate enough. You will never experience the full benefits of moisturizer if you have a thick layer of dead skin. So, your best bet is to use a cleansing brush or a good exfoliator at least three times a week to experience the full benefits of your moisturizer and all of its ingredients.

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Investment Appraisal

Welcome to this financial analysis lesson which will focus on the techniques for investment appraisal. After you have finished this lesson, you will be able to first understand the context of investment appraisal for creating value in business. Second, you can learn the investment appraisal techniques used in decision-making and thirdly understand sensitivity and scenario analysis to test whether you are making the correct decision, to begin with.

The aim of investment appraisal is to use available resources to create value in excess of the cost of the investment. In other words, considering the risk involved, the value of the expected future cash flows need to be greater than the investment to be made. And, for investors, investment appraisal is a useful way to gauge the kind of returns the organization is generating.

Investment appraisal also involves asking whether the returns are good enough and the best possible given the estimated risk levels. Investments with less predictable future cash flows will warrant a higher risk profile and vice-versa. The key here is for managers to strike a balance between the level of risk and the level of expected returns.

Investment Appraisal Process

The various steps in the investment appraisal decision process are; the first two steps focus on information gathering and require you to forecast the revenue costs and associated cash flows of your investment, also identify any potential limiting factors such as budget constraints, timings or a need to generate a specific rate of return on the investment.

The next two steps focus on selecting the appropriate investment appraisal technique and setting specific variables such as the discount rate and the time horizon. The final two steps in the process focus on improving the quality of the decision making by constructing sensitivity analysis and what-if type scenarios to help decide whether to consider or reject the investment.

Investment Appraisal Techniques

There are two simple techniques that are frequently used but which measure different outcomes.

The payback method measures the time it takes for you to get your money back and the return on capital employed method measures the amount of value created from the investment.

The two more complex techniques focus on discounting future cash flows and consider both the timing and risk aspect of the investment. The main methods here are the net present value and the internal rate of return. No investment appraisal technique can give the right answer or is the right technique for all situations and an organization may have its own preferred method.

The payback method simply measures how long it will take for the future returns to pay back the initial investment. This method is often suitable for organizations that have a set period. When investments need to be paid back by or there may be a set period, when funding is available for, if the investment payback is within the criterion payback period, then the investment can be considered. The payback method is simple to use and easy to understand and can be used to make a quick first assessment of an investment’s viability. If available capital is in limited supply and there is strong demand payback within a certain period, maybe a critical factor and it considers risk in a simple way which is the length of time, it will take before you recover your investment.

However, the main drawback of the payback method is that it ignores total returns over the life of the project it will favor a short-term project which returns investment quickly but might then tail off and not give long term returns over a longer life. It also looks at paying back the capital only not at how profitable. The return is in practice the payback method is normally used to complement other methods not the main technique.

Return on capital employed or ROCE which is calculated by taking project returns over the capital employed, gives the return generated by the investment by comparing the accounting profit to the required capital outlay of the investment. It is most commonly used by comparing the return to the minimum hurdle rate which must be achieved. This will often be an organization’s cost of capital which is how much it costs an organization to fund the investment such as the interest rate charged for a bank loan.

ROCE can also be used to compare different projects to establish which has the highest return on investment. The ROCE method is simple to use and easy to understand whereas the payback method focuses on the timing of the cash inflow, ROCE focuses on the profitability of the investment. As such, it can give a quick first assessment of the viability of an investment which is usually whether the return is higher than the organization’s minimum hurdle rate.

In addition, you can easily compare the ROCE of different investment options and it allows investors to use the same benchmark to evaluate management’s performance. However, ROCE ignores the time value of money meaning it could take many years to generate the required returns, the quantifiable size of the investment and the value creation is ignored. In addition, the level of risk involved needs to be assessed separately and using Accounting profit rather than cash flows can be open to interpretation.

Now, let’s consider the more complex and time-consuming investment appraisal techniques; net present value and the internal rate of return with NPV; future cash flows are adjusted to the present value to reflect the time value of money by using the discounting process. A key principle of NPV is that the present value of the expected future cash inflows must be at least equal to the present value of any cash outflows for the investment to be worth considering. The discount factor used in the calculation adjusts for risk and timing and the terminal value estimates cash flows after the forecast period into perpetuity.

IRR is when the rate of discount produces a zero NPV. You can think of IRR as the rate of growth a project is expected to generate. A project with a substantially higher IRR value than other available options would likely stand a better chance of being considered. With these discounted cash flow techniques, the time value of money is factored into the investment appraisal of an investment and the inclusion of a discount factor allows managers to include a risk component in the investment. The higher the discount rate, the higher the perceived risk.

The IRR makes it simple to compare investments and benchmark rates with hurdle rates or costs of capital and both methods allow for sensitivity analysis such as variations in the discount rate. However, the increased complexity of these methods does not necessarily result in accuracy. More variables can lead to more areas of uncertainty and some variables may be more sensitive to small changes than others. They can also be time-consuming to produce and if a limiting factor is obvious such as the availability of funding, then a simpler method such as payback may be more appropriate.

Now, that you have understood how to select the appropriate investment appraisal technique, the final steps in the process focus on improving the quality of the decision-making. Here, you can construct sensitivity analysis and what-if type scenarios to help decide whether to consider or reject the investment. Sensitivity analysis looks at the impact of changing one specific variable such as the discount factor or the initial upfront investment or certain costs being higher or lower than forecast.

By contrast, scenario analysis considers many uncertainties in different scenarios such as the emergence of a new competitor or a price war breaking out by creating a given set of scenarios. You can determine how changes in variables will impact the investment outcome and therefore the decision process. In summary, investment appraisal ensures available resources are used to create value in excess of the cost of the investment. There are several investor appraisal techniques available including payback, ROCE, NPV and IRR. When calculating your appraisals ensure you forecast future cash flows, identify any limiting factors and select the most appropriate appraisal technique for your needs. Then, set any variables and finally conduct sensitivity and scenario analysis to consider or reject the investment.

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Parts of a plant

Today we are going to learn about the plant parts and their functions. Plants have six parts.

The first three help plants get water, make food and to grow. They are roots, stems and leaves. The second three help plants grow new plants. They are flowers, fruit and seeds.

The first plant part we’re going to look at today is the roots. Roots have a special job. You see roots; hold the plant in the soil. The soil is the dirt in the ground. Then roots bring water and nutrients from the soil to the plant. Roots are usually underground. But, they can be above ground too.

The second part of a plant which is the stem. The stems hold the plant up above ground. The stems carry water and food through the plant. Stems are the delivery system of the plant. Roots get water and nutrients from the soil and the stems carry the water and nutrients throughout the plant. The stem holds the plant above ground.

The next part of the plant we’re going to learn today is leaves. The leaves are at the end of the steps of plans and this is interesting. Leaves are where plants make most of their food. Leaves take in air and they use air, water and sunlight to make food.

Flowers like leaves, grow on the end of the stems. Flowers are often the most colorful part of the plant. The rich colors of flowers help attract pollinators. That’s why they’re beautiful. The beauty has a purpose. After getting pollinated, flowers can make seeds and fruit.

Next, fruits. They hang on the end of stems. The fruits’ job is to hold the seeds. The fruit is just a delicious seed holder. Now either one of two things happens to the fruit. The fruit is either picked and eaten or it falls off the plant and rots.

The last part of the plant that we’re going to learn today is the seeds. The seeds have an incredible job. Seeds grow into new plants. When animals eat fruit, they eat the seeds. Later, the seeds leave the animal through its waste wherever the animal is. This is called dispersal.

When the fruit falls from the tree and rots (The word rots mean the fruit dies), it rots, the seeds fall out and can make a new plant.

So, the first way called dispersal takes the seed to another place. So, it plants a new plant in a new place. When a fruit falls and rots, it plants a new plant nearby the original plant.

Stay tuned with Zeeable for more of these resources!!

Plasma Transfusion proven as a Corona Treatment

It has emerged that two elderly coronavirus patients in South Korea made a full recovery after receiving blood plasma treatment. Now health authorities say that plasma treatment guidelines will be announced within days.

South Korean researchers have proved the effectiveness of blood plasma treatment on coronavirus patients. Doctors at Yonsei severance hospital in Seoul administered plasma therapy on to elderly coronavirus patients; a 67-year-old woman and a 71-year-old man. They were treated with plasma from people who had recovered and have developed antibodies to the virus enabling their bodies to protect themselves from the virus attacks.

One of the patients was discharged after making a full recovery while the other is said to be sent home soon. The patients continued to suffer from acute – respiratory distress syndrome even after antiviral treatment. Then it was decided to cool with the plasma treatment in combination with the steroids.

Plasma is a yellowish blood fluid you get from centrifuging blood. It carries various nutrients including protein as well as antibodies. Antibodies which are twice shaped proteins produced by the immune system stop intruders from harming the body. These invaders called antigens can be viruses, bacteria or other chemicals. Antibodies also enable macrophages to engulf viruses and bacteria.

The South Korean government says it will soon provide detailed guidelines for the treatment which was also used to treat patients through the MERS outbreak. The guidelines for plasma treatment are nearly dawn and Winzip telemedicine research on other means of attrition. For now, it’s crucial to secure enough plasma from people who have fully recovered from Covid19.

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Let us contribute for mask production

If you live in a country that is right now facing the new Corona Virus. The pandemic is growing

exponentially in many countries. But, the Czech Republic is one of the few in Europe that has significantly slowed down the spread of the virus.

What did they do differently?

They are following social distancing and the rules stay at home but others do that too.

We also have strict hygienic procedures but others do that as well.

But, the main difference is everyone who has to leave their house has to wear a face mask.

But, their studies prove that even a homemade mask can be partially protective. Partially any protection is essential today. But, now the more important thing- masks fundamentally prevent the transmission from you to others by sneezing, coughing but also breathing and many people are the most contagious before they start showing symptoms.

So, when we both have a face mask, I protect you, you protect me and we are both safe. Just a few days ago people were laughing at those who wore masks. I know face masks are in stores right but something incredible happened. People started making homemade masks and giving them to others for free. So, we know that face masks work and it has been repeatedly confirmed by scientists. They know that it is possible in just three days to provide face masks for 10 million people in one country and they know that they fundamentally repressed the infection.

So, please share this knowledge and help us to change as many countries as possible. It can really save lives and remember I protect you, you protect me.

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Mass Vs Niche Markets

Here’s a short explanation of the difference between niche and mass marketing.  For an example one of my favorite products the humble potato crisp as we know you can just about buy a pack of crisps in particular Walkers crisps anywhere; garages, supermarkets, news agents, you name it you’ll find Walkers crisps in just about every outlet and they’re a great example of a mass-market product.

Walkers has over 55% of the market for crisps in the UK. It’s owned by a very large multinational called Pepsi and whilst it’s got a wide product range of different flavors essentially you’re buying Walkers crisps. You know exactly what you’re getting. However, there are also quite a large number of smaller crisp operators who try to operate in a niche segment.

For example O’donnell’s here who have a range of gluten-free crisps- traditionally hand cooked as well and you won’t find them in anywhere near as many outlets. You’ll find them maybe in  one or two selected supermarkets. Some delicatessens possibly but nowhere near the same kind of distribution that the mass market leader Walkers has and that’s quite a nice illustration.

The mass market is the biggest part of the market where there are, there may be many similar products offered by a number of competitors. The market may be dominated as it is in crisps by one large producer or possibly dominated by two or three but the key thing here is the biggest part of the market and customer needs are less specific. Needs and wants are less specific compare that contrast that with a niche market.

Of the overall market, a niche or a niche market segment is a smaller path; a smaller segment of a larger market and the reason why it’s smaller is that customers; there are fewer of them. But, they have more specific needs and wants.

In this case, with crisps gluten-free, so what can we say?  The implications of targeting trying to operate in a mass-market because it’s the biggest part of the markets and because you’re dealing with customers who have relatively fewer specific needs and once you can afford to make your products less specific and you can afford to go for high production outputs.

So, the key to success in mass markets is to have low unit costs and exploit economies of scale using unit costs and even better if you can align that also with having a brand and a name that is ubiquitous. The chances are that you create a very strong competitive position that you’re serving the biggest part of the market with a brand, a product that most consumers recognize and value and demand.

Mass-market brands that have captured a significant share of the largest part of the market from Gillette razors to Heinz beans and complex. So, to be successful with mass marketing, what you need well because it’s them the largest market; you clearly need to be able to target the widest possible customer base. If you can, the rewards are huge because your sales should be significant – in theory talk successfully targeting at mass market is lower risk. You’re pulling all your resources focused on to a large market that has the biggest possibility of making returns for you and if as we’ve said you can achieve those economies of scale and reduce your unit costs.

You should be able to target a mass market profitably. Why would a business target a niche?

Well, mainly because in a niche market, the potential for higher profit margins and the potential for differentiation of your products and service is greater. This is because we’ve said that in a niche market segment, customers have more specific need to want. Therefore, they’re probably  looking for a more differentiated product.

If a business has specialist skills, specialist knowledge, is able to differentiate its products from the mass-market offerings that it may be able to charge a higher price and earn a higher profit margin albeit to customers who are smaller in number than in the mass-market but do well and you may benefit from more loyal customers.

Clearly the drawback of targeting your niche is that you’re not or you’re less likely to gain from economies of scale simply because the output you’ll be operating at isn’t sufficient to get unit cost down low. However, you might argue that by targeting a niche and succeeding in a niche you’re less likely to attract a competition though that’s just an overview of the concepts of niche and mass markets

Having read the above, also check out the below video for a quick sneak peek review of niche vs mass marketing.

Zoom Panic-Security Issues
Zoom Panic-Security Issues

The zoom panic has begun. This is the program; everybody’s using it. It was really designed for business and we’ve used it in my business for some time even though I have never been a fan, I’m a fan of how it works. It works really well and that’s why people use it.

It’s easy to understand. It just works. But, even last year there were issues with zoom. The way zoom installed for instance on a Macintosh, they put a well did. A number of things that were not for Passover but the worst thing was after you uninstalled zoom, it kept a little webserver running on your macintosh at all times which bad guys could then use to attack your system.

When it was discovered, zoom didn’t respond very quickly. Apple actually had to push out a fix that removed the zoom web server. I’m sure Apple was not happy about that. But, Apple users you could feel good apples sticking up for you.

Zoom was a business product; they were focused on making it easy for relatively unsophisticated users. A lot of companies you zoom for conference calls with potential clients for pitches right? You don’t want to make a potential client have to jump through hoops.

For instance, made it so that you just even if you uninstalled zoom, if you just click to zoom link, you start, you create a meeting and it sends out an invitation, puts it in the calendar, you could just click the link in the calendar and boom you’re in the conference. If you’re doing these sales calls, even if you didn’t have the software installed, it would install it behind the scenes and open up so zoom, I think errored on the side of making this convenient not considering the security consequences.

Then, lately there’s been issues like the zoom iOS app using a Facebook kit of tools was even if you weren’t a Facebook user telling Facebook all about you. It’s not so good; most recently zoom was routing calls through China. They say it’s an accident zoom.

Their privacy issues- there’s a free tier of zoom you can do; 40-minute calls for free and those you know they were looking at what you were doing and mining it for advertising information. All of these things you know negative back now but people still use it.

Zoom bombing- this is where you know you know there’s a whole discord channel; this court is another product that the Youngs like to use. It’s a chat product, does video calls, it’s kind of like zoom for nerds. You can zoom bomb- they think it’s the funniest thing ever and if you think back to when you were in high school what they’re doing is awful.

Zoom does have settings- it’s just the default settings because it’s for business are wide open. You can go into the settings and say hey don’t let anybody joining unless by invitation. The problem is you need to make, you want to make that public, you don’t want to make them hard to enter, you don’t want to have to put up a password. I don’t know if there’s a fix for that.

Another thing zoom does badly and wrong is they say we are end-to-end encrypted private. But, it’s the nature of the beast, they can’t really be private; it can be encrypted as it’s traveling over the internet. But, zooms servers have to be able to see the conversations in order to mix them and do all you know- highlight the speaker and all that.

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